Sami Gopalsami

Electrical Engineer
- Nuclear Engineering

Nachappa “Sami” Gopalsami conducts research on the development of fieldable electromagnetic sensors for detection of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials.

Gopalsami has developed and field-tested active and passive millimeter-wave systems for remote chemical detection at the Department of Energy’s Nevada test site. He developed and applied a compressive sensing technique to passive millimeter-wave imaging that showed a tenfold increase in imaging speed.

With a heat cell spectrometer built at Argonne, he has measured and catalogued terahertz spectral signatures of high explosive molecules for the first time. He is currently investigating remote detection of radioactive plumes and special nuclear materials using radar reflective ionized air targets and is developing a method of biomarker standoff detection for determining personal intent.

Awards, Honors, and Memberships

  • Best Paper Award, American Society of Nondestructive Testing, 1994
  • Outstanding Mentor Award, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science
  • Member, Advanced Spectroscopy Working Group for Simulation, Modeling and Algorithm portfolio of NA-22, Office of National Nuclear Security Administration, 2009-2010
  • Organizer and Chair, Millimeter Wave/Terahertz Session, URSI (International Union of Radio Science), 2010-Present
  • Reviewer, Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Basic Science proposals, 2009-Present
  • Reviewer, NA-22 Office of National Nuclear Security Administration’s University proposals, 2008-Present
  • Reviewer, National MASINT Proposals for NSF and DIA, 2004
  • Session Chair, Terahertz Technology, Session D07, XXIX General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), 2008
  • Session Chair, Chemical Sensors and Electronic Noses for Homeland Security, 12th International Conference on On-Site Analysis, 2004
  • Member, Editorial Review Board, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques Society
  • Member, Postdoctoral Fellowship Committee, Argonne National Laboratory, 2006-2008
  • Member, NSF review panel for Domestic Nuclear Detection Office proposals, 2007
  • Member, RF working group for NA-42 National Nuclear Security Administration, 2009
  • Reviewer, Review of Scientific Instruments (1998 to present)
  • Reviewer, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2004 to present
  • Reviewer, Measurement Science and Technology, 2006 to present
  • Reviewer, Journal of Applied Physics, 2010

Publications & Patents

  • N. Gopalsami and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensing of Airborne Chemicals,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, pp. 646-653, 2001.
  • N. Gopalsami, A. C. Raptis, and J. Meier, “Millimeter-Wave Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 73, pp. 259-262, 2002.
  • N. Gopalsami, H-T. Chien, and W. Goldberger, "Development of Ultrasonic sensor for Nonintrusive Measurement of Temperature in Powder Materials," Powder Metallurgy, vol. 45, pp. 271-275, 2002.
  • N. Gopalsami, Book Review , Quantitative Millimeter Wavelength Spectrometry by J. F. Adler and J. G. Baker, The Royal Society of Cambridge, 2002, P. 122, Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 56, No. 11, p. 295A, 2002.
  • N. Gopalsami, et al.,“T Rays vs. Terrorists: Widening the Security Spectrum,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Feature article on Argonne’s sensor technologies in the Innovations section, vol. 114, pp. A540-543, 2006.
  • N. Gopalsami, et al., “Sensing Explosives with Terahertz,” R&D Magazine, Feature article in the News and Developments section, vol. 48, pp. 10, April 2006.
  • N. Gopalsami, I. Osorio, S. Kulikov, S. Byko, A. Martynov, and A. C. Raptis, “SAW Microsensor Brain Implant for Prediction and Monitoring of Seizures,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 7, pp. 977-982, 2007.
  • S. B. Biedron, J. W. Lewellen,S. V. Milton, N. Gopalsami, et al., “Compact, High-Power Electron Beam Based Terahertz Sources,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 95, pp. 1666-1678, 2007.
  • L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshlev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, et al., “ Emission of Coherent THz Radiation from Superconductors,” Science, vol. 318, pp. 1291-1293, 2007.
  • N. Gopalsami, S. Bakhtiari, T. Elmer, and A. C. Raptis, “Application of Millimeter-Wave Radiometry for Remote Chemical Detection,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, pp. 700-709, 2008.
  • N. Gopalsami, H. T. Chien, A. Heifetz, E. R. Koehl, and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter Wave Detection of Nuclear Radiation – An Alternate Detection Mechanism,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 80, 084702, 2009.
  • I. Osorio, F. C. Chang, and N. Gopalsami, “Seizure control with thermal energy? Modeling of heat diffusivity in brain tissue and computer-based design of a prototype mini-cooler,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 16, pp. 203-211, 2009.
  • R. Barnowski, H. T. Chien, and N. Gopalsami, “Remote Detection of Radioactive Plumes Using Millimeter Wave Technology,” U.S. Department of Energy Journal of Undergraduate Research, pp. 15-21, vol. IX, 2009.
  • A. Heifetz, H. T. Chien, S. Liao, N. Gopalsami, and A. C. Raptis, “Millimeter-wave scattering from neutral and charged water droplets,” J. Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 111, 2550-2557, 2010.
  • S. Liao, N. Gopalsami, A. Venugopal, A. Heifetz, and A. C. Raptis, “An Efficient Iterative Algorithm for Computation of Scattering from Dielectric Objects,” Optics Express, 19, 3304, 2011.
  • S. Liao, N. Gopalsami, A. Heifetz, T. Elmer, P. Fiflis, E. R. Koehl, H. T. Chien, and A. C. Raptis,“ Microwave Remote Sensing of Ionized Air,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 8, pp. 617-620, 2011.
  • S. Bakhtiari, S. Liao, T. W. Elmer, N. Gopalsami, and A. C. Raptis, “A Real-Time Hear Rate Analysis for a Remote Millimeter Wave I-Q Sensor,” IEEE Trans. On Biomedical Engineering, vol. 58, pp. 1839-1845, 2011.
  • J. Martell, T. W. Elmer, N. Gopalsami, and Y. S. Park, “Visual Measurement of Suture Strain for Robotic Surgery,” Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol. 2011, 879086, 2011.
  • O. Carney, N. Gopalsami, S. Y. Sayenko, and M. M.Belash, “Manufacture of High Performance Nuclear Reactor Absorber Pellets by Electroconsolidation Process,” Powder Metallurgy, vol. 54, No. 3, 2011.
  • S. Bakhtiari, T. W. Elmer, N. M. Cox, N. Gopalsami, A. C. Raptis, S. Liao, I. Mikhelson, and A. V. Sahakian, “Compact Millimeter Wave Sensor for Remote Monitoring of Vital Signs,”  IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61, pp. 830-841, 2012.
  • S. Liao, N. Gopalsami, T. W. Elmer, E. R. Koehl, A. Heifetz, K. Avers, E. Dieckman, and A. C. Raptis, “Passive Millimeter-Wave Dual-Polarization Imagers,” IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61, pp. 2042-2050, 2012.
  • Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures, U.S. Patent # 8,165,682, April 24, 2012
  • Passive millimeter wave spectrometer for remote detection of chemical plumes, U.S. Patent # 7,888,645, February 15, 2011
  • Passive millimeter wave spectrometer for remote detection of chemical plumes, U.S. Patent # 7,495,218, February 24, 2009
  • Resonance-enhanced dielectric sensing of chemical and biological species, U.S. Patent # 7,223,608, May 29, 2007