Argonne National Laboratory

Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Currently available electric-drive vehicles (EDV) in the U.S market include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Plug-in Vehicles (PEV) include both PHEV and BEV. HEVs debuted in the U.S. market in December 1999 with 17 sales of the first-generation Honda Insight, while the first PHEV (Chevrolet Volt) and BEV (Nissan Leaf) most recently debuted in December 2010. Electric drive vehicles are offered in several car and SUV models, and a few pickup and van models.

Historical sales of HEV, PHEV, and AEV are compiled by Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research and reported to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office each month. These sales are shown in Figures 1-5. Figure 1 shows monthly new BEV and PHEV sales by model. Figure 2 shows Cumulative U.S. Plug-In Vehicle Sales. Figure 3 shows yearly new HEV sales by model. Figure 4 shows electric drive vehicles sales share of total light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales since 1999. Figure 5 show HEV and PEV sales change with gasoline price.

Latest Monthly Sales Data

HEV Sales

During March 2018, 28,518 HEVs (20,637 cars and 7,881 LTs) were sold, down 10.9% over the sales in March 2017.

Toyota accounted for 55.8% share of total HEV sales in this month. Prius (Prius C, Prius V and Prius Liftback in total) accounted for 18.6% (5,300 vehicles) of total HEV sales, down 34.9% from March 2017.

The March 2018 HEV sales share of LDV (<= 10,000 lbs. GVW) sales was 1.72%, while March 2018 HEV cars captured 3.82% share of total car sales.

Plug-In Vehicle Sales

Total 25,362 plug-in vehicles (14,480 BEVs and 10,882 PHEVs) were sold during March 2018, up 44.5% over the sales in March 2017. PEVs captured 1.53% of total LDV sales in this month.

PHEV sales included 2,922 Toyota Prius Prime, 1,782 Chevrolet Volt, 1,061 Honda Clarity Plug-in, 782 Ford Fusion Energi, 373 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug In, 627 BMW X5, 689 BMW 5-Series Plug in, 105 Ford C-Max Energi, 227 Kia Niro Plug In, 93 Volvo XC90 Plug in, 218 Hyundai Ioniq Plug In, 202 BMW 3-Series Plug in, 214 Audi A3 Plug In, 262 Chrysler Pacifica, 167 Volvo XC60 Plug In, 156 Kia Optima Plug in, 78 Hyundai Sonata Plug In, 181 Mercedes GLE 550e Hybrid, 47 BMW i8, 74 Mini Countryman Plug In, 31 BMW 7-Series Plug in, 52 Volvo S90 Plug In, 17 Cadillac CT6, 57 Mercedes GLC 350e Hybrid, 11 Mercedes S550 Plug In, 197 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, 208 Mercedes C350We Plug-in Hybrid, 49 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, and 0 Cadillac ELR.

BEV sales included 3,200 Tesla Model S, 2,500 Tesla Model X, 1,774 Chevrolet Bolt EV, 3,680 Tesla Model 3, 992 BMW i3, 48 Honda Clarity BEV, 164 Volkswagen e-Golf, 157 Kia Soul EV, 125 Fiat 500e, 103 Smart ED, 137 Ford Focus EV, 33 Mercedes B-Class Electric, 1,500 Nissan Leaf, 60 Hyundai Ioniq EV, 0 Chevrolet Spark, and 0 Mitsubishi i.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Sales

There were 83 Toyota Mirai, 0 Hyundai Tucson, and 121 Honda Clarity sold in March 2018.

LDV Sales

Total 1,655,864 light duty vehicles (539,584 cars and 1,116,280 light trucks) were sold during March 2018, up 6.5% from the sales in March 2017.

Light trucks continued to outsell cars in this month, 67.4% to 32.6%.

Data Sources

Sales data are compiled from several sources at different points in time. Initially, the data were compiled from J.D. Power and associates’ sales reports, and Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) and HEV manufacturers’ information. Later, the data were supplied by Green Car Congress. Currently, the data are collected from Hybrid Market Dashboard. Civic hybrid sales are as reported by Honda in 2003 and 2004. Data from 2005 and later represent sales as reported by EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, and Green Car Congress. The Escape, Highlander, RX 400h, Camry, and GS 450h hybrid sales represent registration information from EDTA through 2006. The 2007 Escape and GS450h sales data are from Green Car Congress. Accord hybrid sales data are from EDTA and Green Car Congress. The 2007 Vue hybrid sales data are from EDTA (January to May only), and later sales data are from Hybrid Dashboard and Green Car Congress. These numbers are by calendar year, not by model year as reported by the U.S. EPA in its “Light Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Fuel Economy Trends Report.” The HEV percent shares reported by U.S. EPA are for vehicles weighing <=8,500 lbs. while shares reported here are for vehicles weighing <=10,000 lbs. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the Department of Energy website also provides annual HEV sales data.


D. Gohlke and Y. Zhou, "Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2017," Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL USA, ANL/ESD-18/1, 2018.