Argonne National Laboratory

Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Currently available electric-drive vehicles (EDV) in the U.S market include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Plug-in Vehicles (PEV) include both PHEV and BEV. HEVs debuted in the U.S. market in December 1999 with 17 sales of the first-generation Honda Insight, while the first PHEV (Chevrolet Volt) and BEV (Nissan Leaf) most recently debuted in December 2010. Electric drive vehicles are offered in several car and SUV models, and a few pickup and van models.

Historical sales of HEV, PHEV, and AEV are compiled by Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research and reported to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office each month. These sales are shown in Figures 1-5. Figure 1 shows monthly new BEV and PHEV sales by model. Figure 2 shows Cumulative U.S. Plug-In Vehicle Sales. Figure 3 shows yearly new HEV sales by model. Figure 4 shows electric drive vehicles sales share of total light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales since 1999. Figure 5 show HEV and PEV sales change with gasoline price.

Latest Monthly Sales Data

HEV Sales

During April 2018, 25,019 HEVs (17,727 cars and 7,252 LTs) were sold in the United States, down 19.0% over the sales in April 2017.

Toyota accounted for 56.9% share of total HEV sales in this month. Prius (Prius C, Prius V and Prius Liftback in total) accounted for 19.2% (4,794 vehicles) of total HEV sales, down 39.2% from April 2017.

The April 2018 HEV sales share of LDV (<= 10,000 lbs. GVW) sales was 1.84%, while April 2018 HEV cars captured 4.15% share of total car sales.

Plug-In Vehicle Sales

Total 19,396 plug-in vehicles (9,589 BEVs and 9,807 PHEVs) were sold during April 2018 in the United States, up 46.0% over the sales in April 2017. PEVs captured 1.43% of total LDV sales in this month.

PHEV sales included 2,626 Toyota Prius Prime, 1,400 Chevrolet Volt, 1,049 Honda Clarity Plug-in, 742 Ford Fusion Energi, 273 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug In, 563 BMW X5, 518 BMW 5-Series Plug in, 57 Ford C-Max Energi, 120 Kia Niro Plug In, 89 Volvo XC90 Plug in, 180 Hyundai Ioniq Plug In, 166 BMW 3-Series Plug in, 189 Audi A3 Plug In, 300 Chrysler Pacifica, 141 Volvo XC60 Plug In, 142 Kia Optima Plug in, 38 Hyundai Sonata Plug In, 93 Mercedes GLE 550e Hybrid, 57 BMW i8, 106 Mini Countryman Plug In, 60 BMW 7-Series Plug in, 29 Volvo S90 Plug In, 42 Cadillac CT6, 59 Mercedes GLC 350e Hybrid, 9 Mercedes S550 Plug In, 265 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, 158 Mercedes C350We Plug-in Hybrid, 336 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, and 0 Cadillac ELR.

BEV sales included 1,200 Tesla Model S, 1,000 Tesla Model X, 1,300 Chevrolet Bolt EV, 3,800 Tesla Model 3, 503 BMW i3, 7 Honda Clarity BEV, 128 Volkswagen e-Golf, 152 Kia Soul EV, 117 Fiat 500e, 80 Smart ED, 83 Ford Focus EV, 7 Mercedes B-Class Electric, 1,171 Nissan Leaf, 41 Hyundai Ioniq EV, 0 Chevrolet Spark, and 0 Mitsubishi i.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Sales

There were 76 Toyota Mirai, 15 Hyundai Tucson, and 156 Honda Clarity sold in the United States in April 2018.

LDV Sales

Total 1,357,858 light duty vehicles (426,765 cars and 931,093 light trucks) were sold in the United States during April 2018, down 4.8% from the sales in April 2017.

Light trucks continued to outsell cars in this month, 68.6% to 31.4%.

Data Sources

Sales data are compiled from several sources at different points in time. Initially, the data were compiled from J.D. Power and associates’ sales reports, and Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) and HEV manufacturers’ information. Later, the data were supplied by Green Car Congress. Currently, the data are collected from Hybrid Market Dashboard. Civic hybrid sales are as reported by Honda in 2003 and 2004. Data from 2005 and later represent sales as reported by EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, and Green Car Congress. The Escape, Highlander, RX 400h, Camry, and GS 450h hybrid sales represent registration information from EDTA through 2006. The 2007 Escape and GS450h sales data are from Green Car Congress. Accord hybrid sales data are from EDTA and Green Car Congress. The 2007 Vue hybrid sales data are from EDTA (January to May only), and later sales data are from Hybrid Dashboard and Green Car Congress. These numbers are by calendar year, not by model year as reported by the U.S. EPA in its “Light Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Fuel Economy Trends Report.” The HEV percent shares reported by U.S. EPA are for vehicles weighing <=8,500 lbs. while shares reported here are for vehicles weighing <=10,000 lbs. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the Department of Energy website also provides annual HEV sales data.


D. Gohlke and Y. Zhou, "Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2017," Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL USA, ANL/ESD-18/1, 2018.