Aqueous Electrolyte Polyionic Electrochemical Cells for Scaled Stationary Energy
This presentation will cover the conception, scaling, and implementation of energy storage electrochemical batteries intended for stationary storage applications. These devices use heretofore unexplored electrode interactions that exploit muti-cation reactions that occur simultaneously at different degrees depending on cell state of charge. The core device uses a configuration wherein the active anode material consists of a blend of NaTi2(PO4)3 and activated carbon and the cathode is cubic spinel -MnO2 that has resident lithium. The electrolyte is a blend of Li+ and Na+ and hydrogen (at some states of charge) cation species, with SO4- and OH- (at some states of charge) as the countering anions, solvated in a neutral pH aqueous electrolyte.
The basic function of the battery will be discussed, and comparisons between small bench top cells and fully scaled product-level devices will be drawn. Data will be presented showing that large scale industrially packaged batteries with nearly 3000 Wh in capacity have be produced and qualified. Further data will show that packs of these batteries in the multi-kWh range have been effectively implemented in field-testing around the world. These applications include support for both smaller off-grid applications with bus voltages in the in the 20 to 100 V range, as well as, grid compatible systems with bus voltages in excess of 1000 V.
Key topics to be addressed include:
- (1) a description of the core electrochemical technology,
- (2) a description of the path to scaled production of these devices,
- (3) lifetime performance of this system through a range of temperatures,
- (4) data from field tests in relevant applications showing the performance of our batteries under application specific load profiles, and
- (5) a vision for future implementation of this technology on a massive scale.