Power Grid Frequency Support with Wind Farms
Abstract: With the continuing growth of renewable energy, grid frequency regulation has been identified as a major challenge for reliable power system operations. Power systems currently rely on conventional dispatchable power sources to provide frequency regulation through short-term balancing of generation and load, and the future displacement of conventional generators has raised concerns about sufficient regulation participation.
A particularly challenging regulation service for wind farms is secondary frequency regulation, where generators track a power reference sent by the grid operator. To improve wind farm secondary frequency regulation capabilities, we develop a closed-loop model predictive controller. Large eddy simulations (LES) are used to model an 84-turbine wind farm. A dynamic wake model is derived that describes the effect of dynamic thrust modulation on the wind farm flow field. An ensemble Kalman filter is used to correct wake modeling errors using measurements from LES. Finally, an optimal control framework is used to provide secondary frequency regulation that successfully meets transmission operator requirements.
Bio: Carl Shapiro is a Ph.D. candidate in mechanical wngineering at Johns Hopkins University. His research on grid integration of wind energy intersects the disciplines of power systems, fluid dynamics, and control systems. After finishing his B.S. in engineering at Swarthmore College in 2010, Carl worked as an intern at National Renewable Energy Laboratory and an engineer at Steven Winter Associates.