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The need to recycle millions of pounds of vehicle batteries is on the horizon as the first generation of plug-in electric vehicles will soon reach the end of their useful lives. In addition, the huge number of consumer electronics device batteries and the use of energy storage on the grid will increase the need to recycle. The Department of Energy named Argonne as the lead for the ReCell Center focused on developing cost-effective processes to recycle advanced materials for batteries, including lithium ion.