Liu, Yu; Holmstrom, Erik; Yu, Ping; Tan, Kemin; Zuo, Xiaobing; Nesbitt, David; Sousa, Rui; Stagno, Jason R. ; Wang, Yun-Xing
Site-specific incorporation of labeled nucleotides is an extremely useful synthetic tool for many structural studies (e.g., NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and X-ray crystallography) of RNA. However, specific-position-labeled RNAs >60 nt are not commercially available on a milligram scale. Position-selective labeling of RNA (PLOR) has been applied to prepare large RNAs labeled at desired positions, and all the required reagents are commercially available. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for the solid-liquid hybrid phase method PLOR to synthesize 71-nt RNA samples with three different modification applications, containing (i) a (CN)-C-13-N-15-labeled segment; (ii) discrete residues modified with Cy3, Cy5, or biotin; or (iii) two iodo-U residues. The flexible procedure enables a wide range of downstream biophysical analyses using precisely localized functionalized nucleotides. All three RNAs were obtained in <2 d, excluding time for preparing reagents and optimizing experimental conditions. With optimization, the protocol can be applied to other RNAs with various labeling schemes, such as ligation of segmentally labeled fragments.