Yu, Runhan; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; Braunstein, Philip; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Hedstrom, Lizbeth
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced during infection and inflammation, and the effects of these agents on proteins, DNA, and lipids are well recognized. In contrast, the effects of RNS damaged metabolites are less appreciated. 5-Amino-3-beta-(D-ribofuranosyl)-3 H-imidazo-[4,5-d][1,3]oxazine-7-one (oxanosine) and its nucleotides are products of guanosine nitrosation. Here we demonstrate that oxanosine monophosphate (OxMP) is a potent reversible competitive inhibitor of IMPDH. The value of K-i varies from SO to 340 nM among IMPDHs from five different organisms. UV spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography indicate that OxMP forms a ring-opened covalent adduct with the active site Cys (E-OxMP*). Unlike the covalent intermediate of the normal catalytic reaction, E-OxMP* does not hydrolyze, but instead recyclizes to OxMP. IMPDH inhibitors block proliferation and can induce apoptosis, so the inhibition of IMPDH by OxMP presents another potential mechanism for RNS toxicity.