Zhao, Le; Ameen, Muhsin; Pei, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Yu; Traver, Michael; Garcia-Oliver, Jose; Vera-Tudela, Walter
In this paper, a review of experimental findings from multiple laboratories using different fuels was performed based on the Engine Combustion Network’s (ECN) Spray A. The main objective was to achieve a better understanding of fuel properties’ effects on spray and combustion characteristics at compression ignition (CI) engine conditions. The experimental summary includes results from a total of 26 fuels and they were classified into four categories: Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), jet fuels, gasoline fuels, and diesel fuels. The spray and combustion behaviors of those fuels, including liquid and vapor penetrations, lift-off length, and ignition delay, were analyzed and correlated with basic fuel properties. The results showed that higher density, boiling temperature and viscosity generally lead to longer liquid length. At reacting conditions, a higher cetane number results in a shorter ignition delay and lift-off length. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation between ignition delay/lift-off-length and cetane number was observed for a wide range of fuels. In the second part of this paper, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation was performed on PRF fuels to obtain detailed insight into how the fuel physical and chemical properties affect the spray and combustion processes. The results showed that lower ignitability occurred as the iso-octane content in fuel increased and this led to a leaner fuel environment and lower emissions at a higher PRF.