Shah, Ashish; Hoth, Alexander; Kolodziej, Christopher; Rockstroh, Toby
The combustion behavior of five full boiling range RON98 gasoline blends was evaluated for multi-mode operation in a GDI and the CFR octane rating engine. The GDI engine tests were conducted with stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in spark-ignition (SI), and with air-diluted homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. In the CFR engine, the knocking combustion was analyzed under standard RON testing conditions at both peak knocking lambda and stoichiometric air-fuel ratios, whereas compression ignited operation was characterized by utilizing the HCCI number test protocol. Disparate knock limited SI and HCCI combustion behavior was observed for the test fuels, despite four of the fuels having the same RON and octane sensitivity. It was found that knock-limited combustion phasing in the GDI engine did not align well with the RON. However, a detailed comparison of knock-limited SI operation in the GDI and CFR engine revealed that a more appropriate effective RON based on a common knock intensity metric (MAPO) and stoichiometric air-fuel ratio resulted in comparable knock characterization between the two engine platforms. Furthermore, the critical intake air temperature and the critical compression ratio were proposed to characterize knock-limited SI operation, while the minimum intake air heating and compression ratio were used to define a fuels autoignition propensity for compression ignition operation in the GDI and CFR engine, respectively. Finally, each fuels characteristic compression ratio needed to obtain knock-limited SI (KLSI) and HCCI operation was used to calculate an effective multi-mode octane number (MM-ON) based on the primary reference fuel blends.