Skip to main content

Unveiling the Influence of Carbon Impurity on Recovered NCM6


Zheng, Yadong; Zhang, Ruihan; Vanaphuti, Panawan; Fu, Jinzhao; Yang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yan


With the proliferation of market demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) over the past decades, battery recycling has aroused extensive attention due to the environmental, supply, and economic issues caused by waste batteries. The hydrometallurgical recycling method has been widely adopted to recover cathode materials as a result of its wide applicability and high productivity. However, it is hard to completely eliminate impurities such as copper, aluminum, and carbon, which could bring significant impacts on recovered materials. Here, the influence of the carbon impurity on recovered LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM622) cathode material is systematically investigated. It shows that the carbon impurity promotes nucleation during coprecipitation and forms holes in the cathode secondary particles after sintering which could enhance cyclability of the NCM622 cathode. The cathode with 0.2 atom % of carbon impurity displays the highest capacity of 159.9 mAh/g with a striking capacity retention rate of 97.9% after 100 cycles at 0.33C, but performs worse at high rates. Nonetheless, excess carbon (5 atom %) results in severe cation disorder and lattice distortion which significantly deteriorates the electrochemical properties of the NCM622 cathode. Therefore, it is important to strictly control carbon impurity during the recycling process for spent LIBs.



Publication Year


Publication Type