Pachano, Leonardo; Xu, Chao; Garcia-Oliver, Jose Martin; Pastor, Jose Marie; Novella, Ricardo; Kundu, Prithwish
Soot production (including formation and oxidation) is studied in the transient, high-pressure and turbulent n-dodecane Spray A flames from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A two-equation soot-in-flamelet modeling approach is applied within the framework of the Unsteady Flamelet Progress Variable (UFPV) model and results are validated against experimental data. Equations for soot mass fraction and soot number density derived in the mixture fraction space are solved in the context of detailed flamelet calculations. Source terms for the different steps in the soot chemistry are tabulated and incorporated in the flamelet manifold. For the reference condition, the modeling approach based on the tabulated flamelet manifold reduces the computational cost of a CFD calculation by approximately 40 times compared to a non-tabulated well-mixed (WM) modeling approach. The soot-in-flamelet approach is then extended to study the effect of ambient oxygen concentration, ambient mixture composition and ambient temperature on soot production. Results show that the modeling approach is able to capture the experimental trends for the soot volume fraction (SVF) with good quantitative agreement, especially in the soot ramp-up region.