Argonne National Laboratory

Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Currently available electric-drive vehicles (EDV) in the U.S market include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Plug-in Vehicles (PEV) include both PHEV and BEV. HEVs debuted in the U.S. market in December 1999 with 17 sales of the first-generation Honda Insight, while the first PHEV (Chevrolet Volt) and BEV (Nissan Leaf) most recently debuted in December 2010. Electric drive vehicles are offered in several car and SUV models, and a few pickup and van models.

Historical sales of HEV, PHEV, and AEV are compiled by Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research and reported to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office each month. These sales are shown in Figures 1-5. Figure 1 shows monthly new BEV and PHEV sales by model. Figure 2 shows Cumulative U.S. Plug-In Vehicle Sales. Figure 3 shows yearly new HEV sales by model. Figure 4 shows electric drive vehicles sales share of total light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales since 1999. Figure 5 show HEV and PEV sales change with gasoline price.

Latest Monthly Sales Data

HEV Sales

During May 2018, 31,918 HEVs (23,041 cars and 8,877 LTs) were sold in the United States, down 5.4% over the sales in May 2017.

Toyota accounted for 53.0% share of total HEV sales in this month. Prius (Prius C, Prius V and Prius Liftback in total) accounted for 18.0% (5,748 vehicles) of total HEV sales, down 29.2% from May 2017.

The May 2018 HEV sales share of LDV (<= 10,000 lbs. GVW) sales was 2.01%, while May 2018 HEV cars captured 4.59% share of total car sales.

Plug-In Vehicle Sales

Total 24,232 plug-in vehicles (12,996 BEVs and 11,236 PHEVs) were sold during May 2018 in the United States, up 45.2%% over the sales in May 2017. PEVs captured 1.52% of total LDV sales in this month.

PHEV sales included 2,924 Toyota Prius Prime, 1,675 Chevrolet Volt, 1,639 Honda Clarity Plug-In, 740 Ford Fusion Energi, 729 BMW 5-Series Plug-In, 499 BMW X5, 400 Chrysler Pacifica, 297 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In, 275 Porshe Panamera S E-Hybrid, 267 Audi A3 Plug-In, 218 Kia Niro Plug-In, 217 Hyundai Ioniq Plug-In, 214 Volvo XC60 Plug-In, 166 Mercedes C350We Plug-In Hybrid, 163 Mini Countryman Plug In, 150 BMW 3-Series Plug in, 126 Volvo XC90 Plug in, 98 Kia Optima Plug in, 83 Mercedes GLE 550e Hybrid, 67 Hyundai Sonata Plug In, 64 BMW i8, 64 Mercedes GLC 350e Hybrid, 59 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, 30 Cadillac CT6, 30 Volvo S90 Plug In, 18 Ford C-Max Energi, 17 BMW 7-Series Plug in, 7 Mercedes S550 Plug In, and 0 Cadillac ELR.

BEV sales included 6,300 Tesla Model 3, 1,576 Nissan Leaf, 1,500 Tesla Model S, 1,500 Tesla Model X, 1,125 Chevrolet Bolt EV, 424 BMW i3, 133 Kia Soul EV, 106 Fiat 500e, 95 Smart ED, 88 Ford Focus EV, 76 Volkswagen e-Golf, 37 Honda Clarity BEV, 32 Hyundai Ioniq EV, 3 Mercedes B-Class Electric, 1 Chevrolet Spark, and 0 Mitsubishi i.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Sales

There were 102 Toyota Mirai, 30 Honda Clarity and 19 Hyundai Tucson sold in the United States in May 2018.

LDV Sales

Total 1,590,729 light duty vehicles (502,240 cars and 1,088,489 light trucks) were sold in the United States during May 2018, up 4.7% from the sales in May 2017. Light trucks continued to outsell cars in this month, 68.4% to 31.6%.

Data Sources

Sales data are compiled from several sources at different points in time. Initially, the data were compiled from J.D. Power and associates’ sales reports, and Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) and HEV manufacturers’ information. Later, the data were supplied by Green Car Congress. Currently, the data are collected from Hybrid Market Dashboard. Civic hybrid sales are as reported by Honda in 2003 and 2004. Data from 2005 and later represent sales as reported by EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, and Green Car Congress. The Escape, Highlander, RX 400h, Camry, and GS 450h hybrid sales represent registration information from EDTA through 2006. The 2007 Escape and GS450h sales data are from Green Car Congress. Accord hybrid sales data are from EDTA and Green Car Congress. The 2007 Vue hybrid sales data are from EDTA (January to May only), and later sales data are from Hybrid Dashboard and Green Car Congress. These numbers are by calendar year, not by model year as reported by the U.S. EPA in its “Light Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Fuel Economy Trends Report.” The HEV percent shares reported by U.S. EPA are for vehicles weighing <=8,500 lbs. while shares reported here are for vehicles weighing <=10,000 lbs. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the Department of Energy website also provides annual HEV sales data.


D. Gohlke and Y. Zhou, "Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2017," Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL USA, ANL/ESD-18/1, 2018.