Currently available electric-drive vehicles (EDV) in the U.S market include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Plug-in Vehicles (PEV) include both PHEV and BEV. HEVs debuted in the U.S. market in December 1999 with 17 sales of the first-generation Honda Insight, while the first PHEV (Chevrolet Volt) and BEV (Nissan Leaf) most recently debuted in December 2010. Electric drive vehicles are offered in several car and SUV models, and a few pickup and van models.
Historical sales of HEV, PHEV, and AEV are compiled by Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research and reported to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office each month. These sales are shown in Figures 1-4. Figure 1 shows monthly new BEV and PHEV sales by model. Figure 2 shows Cumulative U.S. Plug-In Vehicle Sales. Figure 3 shows annual PEV sales share of total light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales since 2011. Figure 4 show HEV and PEV sales change with gasoline price.
Latest Monthly Sales Data
During December 2018, 31,123 HEVs (21,178 cars and 8,509 LTs) were sold in the United States, down 7.4% over the sales in December 2017.
Toyota accounted for 51.6% share of total HEV sales in this month. Prius (Prius C, Prius V and Prius Liftback in total) accounted for 12.1% of total HEV sales, down 49.1% from December 2017.
The December 2018 HEV sales share of LDV (<= 10,000 lbs. GVW) sales was 1.81%, while December 2018 HEV cars captured 4.64% share of total car sales.
Total 343,219 HEVs have been sold in 2018, down 5.4% from 2017.
Plug-In Vehicle Sales
Total 17,239 plug-in vehicles (10,447 BEVs and 6,792 PHEVs) were sold during February 2019 in the United States, up 2.3% over the sales in February 2018. PEVs captured 1.36% of total LDV sales in this month.
PHEV sales included 1,213 Honda Clarity Plug-In, 1,205 Toyota Prius Prime, 615 Chevrolet Volt, 589 Chrysler Pacifica, 573 Ford Fusion Energi, 505 Kia Niro Plug-In, 414 BMW 5-Series Plug-In, 210 Audi A3 Plug-In, 185 BMW 3-Series Plug in, 160 Porsche Panamera E-Hybrid, 157 Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In, 145 Mercedes C350We Plug-In Hybrid, 105 Volvo XC90 Plug in, 100 Volvo XC60 Plug-In, 95 Mercedes GLE 550e Hybrid, 95 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, 72 Mercedes GLC 350e Hybrid, 71 Hyundai Sonata Plug In, 63 Mini Countryman Plug In, 54 Hyundai Ioniq Plug-In, 47 BMW i8, 45 Volvo S90 Plug In, 38 BMW X5, 14 BMW 7-Series Plug in, 11 Kia Optima Plug in, 10 Mercedes S550e Plug In, 1 Cadillac CT6, and 0 Ford C-Max Energi.
BEV sales included 5,750 Tesla Model 3, 1,225 Chevrolet Bolt EV, 1,100 Tesla Model X, 800 Tesla Model S, 654 Nissan Leaf, 350 BMW i3, 186 Jaguar I-Pace, 118 Volkswagen e-Golf, 87 Fiat 500e, 68 Honda Clarity BEV, 58 Smart ED, 32 Hyundai Ioniq EV, 16 Hyundai Kona Electric, 2 Mercedes B-Class Electric, 1 Kia Soul EV, and 0 Ford Focus EV.
Cumulatively, 34,279 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold in 2019. In total, 1,152,067 PHEVs and BEVs have been sold since 2010.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Sales
There were 94 Toyota Mirai, 5 Hyundai Nexo, 0 Honda Clarity, and 0 Hyundai Tucson sold in the United States in February 2019.
Hyundai Nexo was introduced to the market in early 2019 with 5 units sold in February.
Cumulatively, 314 FCEVs have been sold in 2019. In total, 6,558 FCEVs have been sold since 2014.
Sales data are compiled from several sources at different points in time. Initially, the data were compiled from J.D. Power and associates’ sales reports, and Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) and HEV manufacturers’ information. Later, the data were supplied by Green Car Congress. Currently, the data are collected from Hybrid Market Dashboard. Civic hybrid sales are as reported by Honda in 2003 and 2004. Data from 2005 and later represent sales as reported by EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, InsideEVs and Green Car Congress. The Escape, Highlander, RX 400h, Camry, and GS 450h hybrid sales represent registration information from EDTA through 2006. The 2007 Escape and GS450h sales data are from Green Car Congress. Accord hybrid sales data are from EDTA and Green Car Congress. The 2007 Vue hybrid sales data are from EDTA (January to May only), and later sales data are from Hybrid Dashboard and Green Car Congress. These numbers are by calendar year, not by model year as reported by the U.S. EPA in its “Light Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Fuel Economy Trends Report.” The HEV percent shares reported by U.S. EPA are for vehicles weighing <=8,500 lbs. while shares reported here are for vehicles weighing <=10,000 lbs. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the Department of Energy website also provides annual HEV sales data.