Abstract: In this talk I will be discussing the Nobel Turing Initiative (NTI) Grand Challenge. The aim of NTI is to develop “AI scientists”: artificial intelligence (AI) systems capable of making Nobel-quality scientific discoveries highly autonomously at a level comparable, and possibly superior, to the best human scientists by 2050. The challenge calls for the development of highly (if not fully) autonomous AI scientists that can either make discoveries on their own or collaborate with other human and machine scientists in making Nobel-quality discoveries. AI scientists should be capable of independently motivating, making, understanding, and communicating discoveries. This challenge is emblematic and the central focus of the initiative.