Abstract: Light-matter interaction starts with the motion of charges driven by oscillating light cycles. A full visualization of such electronic motions requires attosecond temporal resolution and nano/atomic-scale spatial resolution.
In this presentation, I will introduce attosecond electron microscopy and diffraction, which enable the space-time recording of the sub-optical-cycle dynamics. We obtain attosecond electron pulses by temporally modulating a monoenergetic 70-keV electron beam by cycles of a near-infrared (1030 nm) laser beam impinged on a dielectric membrane.
By two proof-of-principle experiments, we show that the attosecond electron pulses are suitable for atomic-scale diffraction and sub-cycle microscopy applications. First, we report Bragg diffraction from a single-crystalline silicon membrane with a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for time-resolved diffractive imaging. Second, we visualize in real space the oscillating electromagnetic field vectors of an optical wave at a membrane. Our achievements unify the atomic imaging capability of sub-relativistic electron beams with the sub-cycle resolution of attosecond science.