Abstract: We will provide an overview of the state of science relative to wind and solar energy direct and indirect impacts on wildlife. A large amount of data has been collected to understand bird and bat mortality impacts from wind energy, while there is limited data available for characterizing these impacts for solar energy. The level of understanding of these impacts will be broken out by geographic region and taxonomic groups. In addition, the state of science for effective minimization and mitigation methods will be described. Data and research gaps will be discussed for both solar and wind energy. We will also discuss ou rexperience with machine learning applications as well as future research opportunities. Our experience includes fatality monitoring applications using drones, wildlife survey approaches (e.g., seabird colony counts, dolphin surveys), and collision detection systems.