Argonne National Laboratory

Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles Monthly Sales Updates

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Figure 1. Monthly New PEV Sales by Model

Currently available electric-drive vehicles (EDV) in the U.S market include hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Plug-in Vehicles (PEV) include both PHEV and BEV. HEVs debuted in the U.S. market in December 1999 with 17 sales of the first-generation Honda Insight, while the first PHEV (Chevrolet Volt) and BEV (Nissan Leaf) most recently debuted in December 2010. Electric drive vehicles are offered in several car and SUV models, and a few pickup and van models.

Historical sales of HEV, PHEV, and AEV are compiled by Argonne’s Center for Transportation Research and reported to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office each month. These sales are shown in Figures 1-5. Figure 1 shows monthly new BEV and PHEV sales by model. Figure 2 shows Cumulative U.S. Plug-In Vehicle Sales. Figure 3 shows yearly new HEV sales by model. Figure 4 shows electric drive vehicles sales share of total light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales since 1999. Figure 5 show HEV and PEV sales change with gasoline price.

Latest Monthly Sales Data

HEV Sales

During December 2017, 32,187 HEVs (23,607 cars and 8,580 LTs) were sold, down 6.7% over the sales in December 2016. Toyota accounted for 59.4% share of total HEV sales in this month. Prius (Prius C, Prius V and Prius Liftback in total) accounted for 21.9% (7,062 vehicles) of total HEV sales, down 34.6% from December 2016. The December 2017 HEV sales share of LDV (<= 10,000 lbs. GVW) sales was 2.00%, while December 2017 HEV cars captured 4.72% share of total car sales.

Plug-In Vehicle Sales

Total 25,149 plug-in vehicles (14,959 BEVs and 10,190 PHEVs) were sold during December 2017, up 8.0% over the sales in December 2016. PEVs captured 5.03% of total car sales in this month.

PHEV sales included 2,420 Toyota Prius Prime, 1,937 Chevrolet Volt, 898 Honda Clarity Plug-in, 875 Ford Fusion Energi, 832 BMW X5, 706 BMW 5-Series Plug in, 436 Ford C-Max Energi, 368 Volvo XC90 Plug in, 363 BMW 3-Series Plug in, 270 Audi A3 Plug In, 223 Chrysler Pacifica, 174 Volvo XC60 Plug In, 134 Kia Optima Plug in, 103 Hyundai Sonata Plug In, 82 Mercedes GLE 550e Hybrid, 80 BMW i8, 72 Mini Countryman Plug In, 67 BMW 7-Series Plug in, 52 Volvo S90 Plug In, 35 Cadillac CT6, 26 Mercedes S550 Plug In, 23 Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, 14 Mercedes C350We Plug-in Hybrid, 0 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, and 0 Cadillac ELR.

BEV sales included 4,800 Tesla Model S, 3,400 Tesla Model X, 3,227 Chevrolet Bolt EV, 1,050 Tesla Model 3, 672 BMW i3, 527 Honda Clarity BEV, 343 Volkswagen e-Golf, 204 Kia Soul EV, 200 Fiat 500e, 129 Smart ED, 113 Ford Focus EV, 111 Mercedes B-Class Electric, 102 Nissan Leaf, 79 Hyundai Ioniq EV, 2 Chevrolet Spark, and 0 Mitsubishi i.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Sales

There were 296 Toyota Mirai, 1 Hyundai Tucson, and 0 Honda Clarity sold in December 2017.

Data Sources

Sales data are compiled from several sources at different points in time. Initially, the data were compiled from J.D. Power and associates’ sales reports, and Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) and HEV manufacturers’ information. Later, the data were supplied by Green Car Congress. Currently, the data are collected from Hybrid Market Dashboard. Civic hybrid sales are as reported by Honda in 2003 and 2004. Data from 2005 and later represent sales as reported by EDTA, Hybrid Dashboard, and Green Car Congress. The Escape, Highlander, RX 400h, Camry, and GS 450h hybrid sales represent registration information from EDTA through 2006. The 2007 Escape and GS450h sales data are from Green Car Congress. Accord hybrid sales data are from EDTA and Green Car Congress. The 2007 Vue hybrid sales data are from EDTA (January to May only), and later sales data are from Hybrid Dashboard and Green Car Congress. These numbers are by calendar year, not by model year as reported by the U.S. EPA in its “Light Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Fuel Economy Trends Report.” The HEV percent shares reported by U.S. EPA are for vehicles weighing <=8,500 lbs. while shares reported here are for vehicles weighing <=10,000 lbs. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the Department of Energy website also provides annual HEV sales data.


D. Gohlke and Y. Zhou, "Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2017," Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL USA, ANL/ESD-18/1, 2018.