This invention relates to positive electrode materials (cathodes) for electrochemical cells and batteries. It relates, in particular, to electrode precursor materials comprising manganese ions, such as Li2MnO3, and to methods for fabricating lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials and structures using the precursor materials, notably for lithium cells and batteries. More specifically, the invention relates to improved or novel lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials with layered-type structures, spinel-type structures, rocksalt-type structures, combinations thereof and modifications thereof, notably those with imperfections, such as stacking faults and dislocations. The invention extends to include lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials with modified surfaces to protect the electrode materials from highly oxidizing potentials in the cells and from other undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss and/or dissolution.
Electrodes used in lithium batteries for
- Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
- Portable electronic devices;
- Medical devices; and
- Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices.
Reduced to practice