This invention comprises methods, for typical small nanoparticles, of removing elements distribution heterogeneity in the particle to significantly improve performance. For big nanoparticles, the performance of 3-D architecture made from the segregated nanoparticle could be further improved by increasing the elements distribution heterogeneity with proper post-treatment. Can be used in applications such as fuel cell electric cars, back up power for remote communication tower and other stationary applications.
This invention could be used to make highly active PEM fuel cell catalyst. With increased activity, the precious metal loading could be decreased in a variety of applications.
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