The invention comprises a method to fabricate photothermal materials. A porous substrate, such as a membrane or sponge, is coated with Chinese ink followed by atomic layer deposition. More
Chinese ink is applied on various materials and stabilized by atomic layer deposition to fabricate solar steam generation devices. The encapsulated ink has excellent photothermal properties and evaporation efficiency under simulated sunlight, holding great promise in solar evaporation device applications.