The addition of the spinel component to the “layered-layered” class of cathode materials represents a new strategy that minimizes voltage fade while maximizing capacity and rate.
A family of “layered-layered-spinel” materials with high-rate and stable voltage that are composed of lithium manganese nickel oxides have been discovered and are used to replace high-energy multi- component “layered-layered” type or single-phase high-rate spinel-type structures for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries. The composition of matter in this patent defines an activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell with a precursor of lithium metal oxides with the core formula (x[zLi2MnO3·(1-z)LiMO2]•(1-x)LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (5 V spinel)) and other spinel or layered variations (viz. LiM’2O4; M’=Mn, Ni, Co, Li; and layered LiMO2 (viz. M=Mn, Ni, Co, etc.) thereof, whereby the components in the precursor electrode are chemically integrated or physically blended together.
- These new material compositions provide substantially higher capacities than state-of-the-art layered lithium/cobalt/nickel/oxide materials.
- Due to the spinel component, these cathodes are endowed with high power where they can be charged and discharged rapidly.
- The multi-component nature of these materials can be optimized in the phase space in the figure according to the manufacturer’s needs.
- Manganese is less expensive to use and more chemically benign than cobalt or nickel. Either low-cost elements and/or other elements may be doped into the structure to provide better performance, at a lower cost, as needed.
Applications and Industries
Electrodes used in batteries for:
- Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
- Portable electronic devices,
- Medical devices, and
- Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices.
The phase space in the figure and other spinel-containing compositions are under patent coverage, and are ready for commercialization.