Skip to main content

electrodes

Below is a comprehensive list of articles, events, projects, references and research related content that is specific to the term described above. Use the filter to narrow the results further. To explore additional science and technology topics that Argonne researchers and engineers may be working on please visit our Research Index.

Filter Results

  • Advanced surface-stabilizing structure, treatment and coating technologies for a variety of high-voltage, low-cobalt lithium metal oxides electrodes for use in rechargeable lithium cells and batteries
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    Surface stabilized electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-06-033
    Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes
    • ANL-IN-08-093
    Metal fluoride passivation coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition for li-ion batteries
    • ANL-IN-15-003
    High valent lithiated surface structures for lithium ion battery electrode materials
    • ANL-IN-16-090
    Surface treatment for lithium battery electrode materials
    • ANL-IN-17-029
    Composite bilayer coatings for high capacity cathodes and anodes
    • ANL-IN-18-001

    Technology Overview

    Argonne’s has developed a suite of surface structures, treatments and coatings for a range of high-voltage lithium metal oxide electrodes, including advanced nickel- manganese- and lithium-rich cathode materials. 
    See Low-Cobalt, Manganese-Rich Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries for Argonne’s complementary portfolio of Li- and Mn-rich cathode structure technologies.

    Benefits 

    • Surface-stabilizing structure, treatment and coating technologies offer customizable approaches for a range of high-voltage lithium metal oxides electrode materials.
    • Enhance the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of electrodes, which leads to increased electrode energy capacity.
    • Specifically address surface-related stability for enabling the use of next generation Mn- and Li-rich cathode structure types in lithium-ion batteries.

    Applications and Industries

    Electrodes used in batteries for: 

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, 
    • Stationary energy storage systems,
    • Portable electronic devices, 
    • Medical devices, and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices. 

    Developmental Stage

    Ready for commercialization.

  • Low-cobalt lithium metal oxide electrodes having higher voltage, increased stability, and contain less expensive manganese (Mn) for use in rechargeable lithium cells and batteries
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    Low-Cobalt, Manganese-Rich Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries
    • ANL-IN-04-076 & ANL-IN-08-087 entitled MANGANESE OXIDE COMPOSITE ELECTRODES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES
    Electrode structures and surfaces for Li batteries
    • ANL-IN-10-095
    Cobalt-stabilized lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-13-112
    Layered-spinel electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-14-108
    Stabilized electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-15-067
    Stabilized lithium cobalt oxide spinel electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-17-037
    Disordered rock salt electrodes for lithium batteries
    • ANL-IN-18-140

     

    Technology Overview 

    A representative phase space defining the the layered-layered-spinel” electrode material.

    Argonne’s family of manganese and lithium rich materials includes a range of cathode structures, including layered-type structures, spinel-type structures, rocksalt-type structures, and combinations thereof. For example, layered-layered-spinel” materials with high-rate and stable voltage that are composed of lithium manganese nickel oxides have been discovered and can be used to replace high-energy multi- component layered-layered” type or single-phase high-rate spinel-type structures for lithium cells and batteries. 
    See Surface structures, treatments and coatings for high-voltage lithium metal oxide electrodes for complementary surface treatment and coating technologies. 

    Benefits 

    • These new material compositions provide substantially higher capacities than state-of-the-art layered lithium/cobalt/nickel/oxide materials, such as nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC).
    • Due to the spinel component, these cathodes are endowed with high power where they can be charged and discharged rapidly. 
    • The multi-component nature of these materials can be optimized in the phase space in the figure according to the manufacturer’s needs. 
    • Manganese is less expensive to use and more chemically benign than cobalt or nickel. Either low-cost elements and/or other elements may be doped into the structure to provide better performance, at a lower cost, as needed.

    Applications and Industries 

    Electrodes used in batteries for: 

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
    • Stationary energy storage systems,
    • Portable electronic devices, 
    • Medical devices, and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices. 

    Developmental Stage 

    Ready for commercialization. 

  • Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high capacity, rechargeable cathodes
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    US Patent 7,358,009
    • Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    The Invention 

    High-capacity, rechargeable cathodes made of stable di-lithium layered compounds (Li2MO2) (M=Li, Ni, Mn) for use in Li batteries. The electrode capacities exceed 500 mAhg-1 when two lithium cations are cycled, giving this material very high energy. Li2MO2 is a good chemical precursor to fabricate cathodes with new composite layered LiMO2 or LiM2O4 spinel structures that possess excellent cycling reversibility. Li2MO2 can also be used as a reversible anode when cycled below 1.5 V.

    Structure of Li2MO2 layered compound showing their use as a precursor for fabrication of reversible LiMO2 cathode materials

    Benefits 

    • Li2MO2, as a layered precursor chemical, can be used to create LiMO2 composite cathodes with high-capacity and high energy which are superior to state-of-the-art layered lithium/cobalt/nickel/oxide cathodes. 
    • Layered Li2MO2 cathodes possess capacities of 500 mAhg-1 which are much higher than current Li-ion batteries. Because of this, the voltage of the electrochemical reactions can be raised to produce batteries with high energy densities. 
    • Manganese, nickel and lithium are used in the compounds, avoiding the use of cobalt, which is expensive and toxic. 
    • Low-cost synthesis of Li2MO2 by chemical or electrochemical lithiation is a new approach to make cathodes that last longer with low energy losses. 

    Applications and Industries 

    Electrodes used in batteries for 

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; 
    • Portable electronic devices; 
    • Medical devices; and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices. 

     

  • Improved stability of composite electrode structures and a low cost manufacturing method
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    US Patent 9,593,024
    • Electrode Structures and Surfaces for Li Batteries (ANL-IN-10-095)

    The Invention 

    This invention relates to positive electrode materials (cathodes) for electrochemical cells and batteries. It relates, in particular, to electrode precursor materials comprising manganese ions, such as Li2MnO3, and to methods for fabricating lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials and structures using the precursor materials, notably for lithium cells and batteries. More specifically, the invention relates to improved or novel lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials with layered-type structures, spinel-type structures, rocksalt-type structures, combinations thereof and modifications thereof, notably those with imperfections, such as stacking faults and dislocations. The invention extends to include lithium-metal-oxide electrode materials with modified surfaces to protect the electrode materials from highly oxidizing potentials in the cells and from other undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss and/or dissolution. 

    A schematic of a Li2MnO3 precursor structure, highlighting the technique used to fabricate the composite electrodes.

    Applications 

    Electrodes used in lithium batteries for 

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; 
    • Portable electronic devices; 
    • Medical devices; and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices.

    Developmental Stage 

    Reduced to practice 

  • Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    US Patent 8,557,438
    • Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach (ANL-IN-10-031)
    The figure shows the high-rate performance of the new class of cathode materials featuring bi-layered structures. The highest cu

    The Invention 

    New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable Li-ion cells and batteries synthesized using a novel alternative approach. These Li-ion cathode materials consist of layered transition metal containing oxides that have a unique bi-layered domain structure produced by the synthesis method. This new material allows for rapid Li intercalation/de-intercalation within the crystal, resulting in a cathode with very high rate and high-power capability. Argonne’s invention provides for new, Mn-rich compositions in these cathodes and their associated synthetic route. This layered cathode material containing low-cost Mn operates at high-rate and high-voltage, resulting in high-energy-density batteries with improved stability. These cathodes therefore offer improvements in all aspects of battery performance. 

    Since the performance of Li-ion batteries is largely predicated on the cathode performance in the cell, improvements to lower the irreversibility capacity loss on the first cycle, increase the rate capability, and improve structural stability at high voltages in the cathode are needed. The objective is to synthesize and make new materials to address these issues. High-energy density Li-ion batteries available in the market today have low power and progressively lose their energy due to voltage fade during cycling. This new cathode material from new synthesis methods solves problems that are associated with conventional Li-ion high-capacity (energy) batteries. 

    Benefits 

    • Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs. 
    • Reduced costs by lowering the number of cells needed in the battery pack and their associated hardware 
    • Argonne’s preparation process is simple for this new class of high-energy materials and involves only two steps so that the manufacturing cost is easier, faster, and more cost-effective. 

    Applications and Industries 

    • Electrodes used in batteries for 
    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; 
    • Portable electronic devices; 
    • Medical devices; and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices. 

    Developmental Stage

    Baseline materials are patented and have been implemented in full cells.

  • Electrodes that offer superior cost and safety features over state-of-the-art LiCoO2 electrodes
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    US Patent 6,677,082; US Patent 6,680,143
    • Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries (ANL-IN-00-063) and (ANL-IN-00-063B)
    Fig. 1. Structural illustrations of the components of xLi2MO3·(1-x)LiMO2

    The Invention 

    Electrodes having composite xLi2M’O3·(1-x)LiMO2 structures in which an electrochemically inactive Li2M’O3 component is integrated with an electrochemically active LiMO2 component to provide improved structural and electrochemical stability. The preferred M’ ions are manganese, titanium and zirconium, whereas the preferred M ions are manganese and nickel, which can be used in combination with other metals such as cobalt. For example, the composite electrode 0.10Li2MnO3·0.90LiMn0.26Ni0.37Co0.37O2, which can also be represented in conventional layered notation as Li[Li0.0475Mn0.3175Ni0.3175Co0.3175]O2, shows outstanding electrochemical properties. The structural compatibility between the two components, both of which have layered configurations (Fig. 1), allows integration to occur at the atomic level. 

    Fig. 2. The compositional phase diagram of a Li2MO3 - LiMO2 - MO2 - Li2MO2 electrode

    During charge and discharge of a lithium-ion cell, Li+ ions are electrochemically removed from and reinserted into the LiMO2 component, respectively, as shown schematically in a compositional phase diagram of a Li2M’O3 - LiMO2 - MO2 - Li2MO2 electrode system (Fig. 2). An additional advantage of using electrode structures with manganese and nickel ions in the LiMO2 component is that these structures can accommodate additional lithium; they form layered Li2MO2 structures without compromising the reversibility of the reaction, thereby providing additional capacity to the electrode. The Li2M’O3 component not only provides structural stability but also ensures, with its high lithium content, that the lithium layers in the composite electrodes are not contaminated by small amounts of transition metal ions, such as Ni2+ ions. 

    Benefits 

    • Superior cost and safety features over state-of-the-art LiCoO2 electrodes 
    • Can be charged and discharged at high rates 

    Applications and Industries 

    Electrodes used in batteries for 

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; 
    • Portable electronic devices; 
    • Medical devices; and 
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices. 

    Developmental Stage 

    Ready for commercialization 

  • New high-capacity cathode materials with high lithium content that can act as a reservoir for lithium
    Intellectual Property Available to License
    US Patent 8,835,027
    • Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (ANL-IN-06-037)

    The new materials have potential application in lithium-ion batteries with anodes such as graphite, graphene, and silicon. There is also potential application in batteries utilizing lithium metal anodes.

    In this invention, cathode precursors that contain a large amount of lithium can be extracted electrochemically at high potentials to load metal or metal alloy substrates with lithium. In one example, lithium and oxygen ions are released from the cathode during an initial preconditioning charge of the cell. This process leaves a structurally modified compound in the charged cathode that can react with lithium on a subsequent discharge. In principle, the preconditioning step (i.e., the initial charge reaction) is largely irreversible, whereas the second step (the initial charge reaction) can be either reversible or irreversible. This technology is available for license.

    Applications

    High capacity electrodes used in lithium batteries for:

    • Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;
    • Stationary energy storage devices;
    • Portable electronic devices;
    • Medical devices; and
    • Space, aeronautical, and defense-related devices.