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Materials Science Division

Magnetic Films Publications

2017

Magnetoresistive detection of strongly pinned uncompensated magnetization in antiferromagnetic FeMn, 
P.N. Lapa, I.V. Roshchin, J. Ding, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, J.S. Jiang, and A. Hoffmann, Phys. Rev. B 95, 020409® (2017). 


Insulating nanomagnets driven by spin torque, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, J. Ding, W. Zhang, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, and A. Hoffmann, Nano Lett. 17, 8 (2017).

Direct Observation of the Skyrmion Hall Effect, 
W. Jiang, X. Zhang, G. Yu, W. Zhang, X. Wang, M.B. Jungfleisch, J.E. Pearson, X. Cheng, O. Heinonen, K.L. Wang, Y. Zhou, A. Hoffmann, and S. G.E. te Velthuis,
 Nature Phys. 13, 162 (2017).

2016

Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids 
C. Di Giorgio, F. Bobba, A.M. Cucolo, A. Scarfato, S.A. Moore, G. Karapetrov, D. D’Agostino, V. Novosad, Y. Yefrmenko, and M. Iavarone,
 Sci. Rep. 6, 38557 (2016).

Elemental and lattice-parameter mapping of binary oxide superlattices of (LaNiO3)4/(LaMnO3)2 at atomic resolution, Ji-Hwan Kwon, Ping Lu, Jason Hoffman, Renliang Yuan, Aram Yoon, Anand Bhattacharya, and Jian-Min Zuo, Semicond. Sci. and Tech. 32, 014002 (2016).

Oscillatory Non-collinear Magnetism Induced by Interfacial Charge Transfer in Metallic Oxide Superlattices, Jason Hoffman, B.J. Kirby, J. Kwon, J.W. Freeland, I. Martin, O.G. Heinonen, P. Steadman, Hua Zhou, Christian M. Schlepütz, Suzanne G.E. te Velthius, Jian-Min Zuo, Anand Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. X 6, 041038 (2016).

Element-resolved magnetism across the temperature- and pressure-induced spin reorientation in MnBi, 
Y.S. Choi, X. Jiang, W.L. Bi, P. Lapa, R.K. Chouhan, D. Paudyal, T. Varga, D. Popov J. Cui, D. Haskel, and J.S. Jiang,
Phys. Rev. B 94, 184433 (2016). 


Perspective: Interface generation of spin-orbit torques, 
J. Sklenar, W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, H. Saglam, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann, J. Appl. Phys. 120, 180901 (2016).

Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn, 
H. Saglam, W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, J. Sklenar, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann, Phys. Rev. B 94, 140412® (2016). 


Tailoring transport properties of phase-separated manganite films with ordered magnetic nanostructures, 
V. Vlaminck, W. Yánez, J. Hoffman, A. Hoffmann, and D. Niebieskikwiat, Phys. Rev. B 94, 064404 (2016).

Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, 
P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. DeMann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J.S. Jiang, W. Porod, S.B. Field, J. Tang, M.C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu,
 Nature Comm. 7, 12688 (2016). 


Spatially inhomogeneous electron gas deep in the extreme quantum limit of strontium titanate, Anand Bhattacharya, Brian Skinner, Guru Khalsa, Alexey V. Suslov, Nat. Commun. 7, 12974 (2016). doi:10.1038/ncomms12974.

Towards spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas at a surface of an antiferromanetic insulating oxide, R. Mishra, Y.-M. Kim, Q. He, X. Huang, S.-K. Kim, M.A. Susner, A Bhattacharya, D.D. Fong, S.T. Pantelidis, A.Y. Borisevich, Phys. Rev. B 94, 045123 (2016).

Interface-driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance by Rashba coupling at the interface between non-magnetic materials,
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, J. Sklenar, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann,
 Phys. Rev. B 93, 224419 (2016).

Spin Vortex Resonance in Non-planar Ferromagnetic Dots, 
J. Ding, P. Lapa, S. Jain, T. Khaire, S. Lendinez, W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, C.M. Posada, V.G. Yefremenko, J.E. Pearson, A. Hoffmann, and V. Novosad,
 Sci. Rep. 6, 25196 (2016). 


Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice, 
Y.-L. Wang, Z.-L. Xiao, A. Snezhko, J. Xu, L.E. Ocola, R. Divan, J.E. Pearson, G.W. Crabtree, and W.-K. Kwok,
 Science 352, 962 (2016). 


Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2, 
W. Zhang, J.N. Sklenar, B. Hsu, W. Jiang, M.B. Jungfleisch, J. Xiao, F.Y. Fradin, Y. Liu, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, Z. Yang, and A. Hoffmann,
 APL Mater. 4, 032302 (2016).

Mobile Néel skyrmions at room temperature: status and future, 
W. Jiang, W. Zhang, G. Yu, M.B. Jungfleisch, P. Upadhyaya, H. Somaily, J.E. Pearson, Y. Tserkovnyak, K.L. Wang, O. Heinonen, S. G.E. te Velthuis, and A. Hoffmann,
 AIP Adv. 6, 055602 (2016).

Spin Hall effects in metallic antiferromagnets – perspectives for future spin-orbitronics, 
J. Sklenar, W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, H. Saglam, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann, AIP Adv. 6, 055603 (2016).

Dynamic response of an artificial square spin ice, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, E. Iacocca, J. Sklenar, J. Ding, W. Jiang, S. Zhang, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, J.B. Ketterson, O. Heinonen, and A. Hoffmann,
 Phys. Rev. B 93, 100401® (2016). 


Spin valve with non-collinear magnetization configuration imprinted by a static magnetic field, 
P.N. Lapa, T. Kaire, J. Ding, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, A. Hoffmann, and J.S. Jiang, AIP Adv. 6, 056107 (2016). 


Gyrotropic frequency control in ferromagnetic dots using a nanoscale vortex barrier, 
J. Ding, S. Jain, P.N. Lapa, T. Kaire, S. Lendinez, C.M. Posada, W. Zhang, J.E. Pearson, A. Hoffmann, and V. Novosad,
 AIP Adv. 6, 056102 (2016). 


Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck Effect, Stephen M. Wu, Wei Zhang, Amit KC, Pavel Borisov, John E. Pearson, J. Samuel Jiang, David Lederman, Axel Hoffmann, and Anand Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 097204 (2016).

Generation of magnetic skyrmion bubbles by inhomogenous spin-Hall currents, 
O. Heinonen, W. Jiang, H. Somaily, S. G.E. te Velthuis, and A. Hoffmann, Phys. Rev. B 93, 094407 (2016).

All-electrical detection of spin dynamics in magnetic antidote lattices by the inverse spin Hall effect, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, J. Ding, W. Jiang, J. Sklenar, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052403 (2016). 


Large spin-wave bullet in a ferromagnetic insulator driven by spin Hall effect, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, J. Sklenar, J. Ding, W. Jiang, H. Chang, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, V. Novosad, M. Wu, and A. Hoffmann,
 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 057601 (2016).

Epitaxial patterning of nanometer-thick Y3Fe5O12 films with low magnetic damping, 
S. Li, W. Zhang, J. Ding, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, and A. Hoffmann, Nanoscale 8, 388 (2016). 


In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy, J.H. Lee, I.C. Tung, S-H. Chang, A. Bhattacharya, D.D. Fong, J.W. Freeland, and Hawoong Hong. Rev. of Sci. Inst. 87, 013901 (2016). 



Doppler-scanning tunneling microscopy current imaging in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids, 
S.A. Moore, G. Plummer, J. Fedor , J. Pearson, V. Novosad, G. Karapetrov , and M. Iavarone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 042601 (2016). 


Enhancing superconducting critical current by randomness 
Y.L. Wang, L.R. Thoutam, Z.L. Xiao, B. Shen, J.E. Pearson, R. Divan, L.E. Ocola, G.W. Crabtree, and W.K. Kwok,
 Phys. Rev. B 93, 045111 (2016). 


2015

New pathways towards efficient metallic spin Hall spintronics, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, W. Jiang, and A. Hoffmann, SPIN 05, 1530005 (2015). 


Driving and detecting ferromagnetic resonance in insulators with the spin Hall effect, 
J. Sklenar, W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, H. Chang, J.E. Pearson, M. Wu, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann,
 Phys. Rev B 92, 174406 (2015). 


All-electrical manipulation of magnetization dynamics in a ferromagnet by antiferromagnets with anisotropic spin Hall effects,
W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, F. Freimuth, W. Jiang, J. Sklenar, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, Y. Mokrousov, and A. Hoffmann,
 Phys. Rev. B 92, 144405 (2015). 


Mesoscale Magnetism and Superconductivity,
A.C. Basaran, J.E. Villegas, J.S. Jiang, A. Hoffmann, and I.K. Schuller, MRS Bull. 40, 925 (2015).

Opportunities at the Frontiers of Spintronics, 
A. Hoffmann and S.D. Bader, Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 047001 (2015). 


Mesoscale Magnetism, 
A. Hoffmann and H. Schultheiß,
Curr. Opin. Solid State & Mater. Sci. 19, 253 (2015). 


Blowing Magnetic Skyrmion Bubbles, 
W. Jiang, P. Upadhyaya, W. Zhang, G. Yu, M.B. Jungfleisch, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, Y. Tserkovnyak, K.L. Wang, O. Heinonen, S. G.E. te Velthuis, and A. Hoffmann,
 Science 349, 283 (2015).

Nonlinear dynamic properties of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanodots, 
Yu. Koblijanskyj, D. Slobodianiuk, G. Melkov, K. Guslienko, V. Novosad, S. Bader, M. Kostylev, and A. Slavin, pp. 97-113, in Handbook of Nanomagnetism: Applications and Tools, Ed. R. A. Lukaszew, CRC Press (2015). 


A Small Signal Amplifier Based on Ioninc Liquid Gated Black Phosphorous Field Effect Transistor,
S. Das, W. Zhang, L.R. Thoutam, Z. Xiao, A. Hoffmann, M. Demarteau, and A. Roelofs, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 36, 621 (2015). 


Low Loss Superconducting Microstrip Development at Argonne National Laboratory, 
C.L. Chang, P.A.R. Ade, Z. Ahmed, S.W. Allen, K. Arnold, J.E. Austermann, A.N. Bender, I.E. Bleem, B.A. Benson, J.E. Carlstrom, H.M. Cho, S.T. Ciocys, J.F. Cliché, T.M. Crawford, A. Cukierman, J. Ding, T. de Haaan, M.A. Dobbs, D. Dutcher, W. Everett, A. Gilbert, N.W. Halverson, D. Hanson,
N.L. Harrington, K. Hattori, J.W. Henning, G.C. Hilton, G.P. Holder, W.I. Holzapfel, J. Hubmayr, 
K.D. Irwin, R. Keister, L. Knox, D. Kubik, C.L. Kuo, A.T. Lee, E.M. Leitch, D. Li, M. McDonald, S.S. Meyer, J. Montgomery, M. Myers, T. Natoli, H. Nguyen, V. Novosad, S. Padin, Z. Pan, J. Pearson, C.P. Arbelaez, C.L. Reichardt, J.L. Ruhl, B.R. Saliwanchik, G. Slinard, G. Smecher, J.T. Sayre, E. Shirokoff, A.A. Stark,
K. Story, A. Suzuki, K.L. Thompson, C. Tucker, K. Vanderlinde, J.D. Viera, A. Vikhlinin, G. Wang, 
V. Yefremenko, K.W. Yoon,
 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 25, 2500105 (2015). 


Near-nanoscale-resolved energy band structure of LaNiO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and their interfaces, Thaddeus J. Asel, Hantian Gao, Tyler J. Heinl, Drew Adkins, Patrick M. Woodward, Jason Hoffman, Anand Bhattacharya, and Leonard J. Brillson. J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 33, 04E103 (2015).

Spin waves in micro-structured yttrium iron garnet nanometer-thick films, 
M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Zhang, W. Jiang, H. Chang, S.M. Wu, J.E. Pearson, A. Bhattacharya, J.B. Ketterson, M. Wu, and A. Hoffmann,
J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17D128 (2015). 


Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb ,
W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, and A. Hoffmann, J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17C727 (2015). 


Magnetization processes in core/shell exchange-spring structures, 
J. S. Jiang,
 J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17A734 (2015).

Dynamic control of metastable remanent states in mesoscale magnetic elements 
J. Ding, S. Jain, J. Pearson, S. Lendinez, V. Khovaylo, and V. Novosad, J. Appl. Phys.117, 17A707 (2015).

Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects–Insights for future spin-orbitronics, (invited) 
W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, J. Sklenar, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, J.B. Ketterson, and A. Hoffmann,
J. Appl. Phys. 117, 172610 (2015). 


Paramagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect, S.M. Wu, J.E. Pearson, A. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 186602 (2015).

A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex 
D.A. Gilbert, L. Ye, A. Varea, S. Agramunt-Puig. N. Del Valle, C. Navau, J.F. López-Barbera, K.S. Buchanan, A. Hoffmann, A. Sánchez, J. Sort, and J. Nogués, 
Nanoscale 7, 9878 (2015). 


Reduced spin-Hall effects from magnetic proximity, 
W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, S. G.E. te Velthuis, A. Hoffmann, F. Freimuth, and Y. Mokrousov,
Phys. Rev. B 91, 115316 (2015).

Spin Seebeck devices using localon-chip heating, S.M. Wu, F.Y. Fradin, J. Hoffman, A. Hoffmann, and A. Bhattacharya, J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17C509 (2015).

Self-healing patterns in ferromagnetic-superconducting hybrids, 
V.K. Vlasko-Vlasov, E. Palacious, D. Rosenmann, J. Pearson, Y. Jia, Y.L. Wang, U. Welp, and W.-K. Kwok, Supercond. Sci. Techn. 28, 035006 (2015).

Nonlinear spin waves in two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanodots 
K. Yu. Guslienko, Yu. Kobljanskyi, G. Melkov, V. Novosad, S.D. Bader, M. Kostylev, and A. Slavin, Ultrafast Magnetism I, Book Series: Springer Proceedings in Physics 159, 206 (2015). 


Spectral Weight Redistribution in (LaNiO3)n/(LaMnO3)2 superlattices from Optical Spectroscopy, P. Di Pietro, J. Hoffman, A. Bhattacharya, S. Lupi, A. Perucchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 156801 (2015).

2014

Spin Hall effects in metallic antiferromagnets 
W. Zhang, M.B. Jungfleisch, W. Jiang, J.E. Pearson, A. Hoffmann, F. Freimuth, and Y. Moukrosov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 196602 (2014). 


Study of Critical Exponents in Doped La2/3Ca1/3Mn1-yFeyO3 (y = 0, 0.03) Manganite Thin Films, 
O. Arnarche, G. Campillo, and A. Hoffmann, Appl. Phys. A 117, 937 (2014).

Magnetic pinning in a superconducting film by a ferromagnetic layer with stripe domains,
D. Mancusi, C. Di Giorgio, F. Bobbs, A. Scarfato, A.M. Cucolo, M. Iavarone, S.A. Moore, G. Karapetrov, V. Novosad, V. Yefremenko, S. Pace, and M. Polichetti,
Supercond. Sci. Techn. 27, 125002 (2014).

Magnetocaloric effect in reduced” dimensions: Thin films, ribbons, and microwires of Heusler alloys and related compounds
V. V. Khovalyo, V. V. Rodionova, S.N. Shevyrtalov, and V. Novosad,
 Phys. Status Solidi B 251, 2104 (2014). 


Efficient Cisplatin Pro-Drug Delivery Visualized with Sub-100 nm Resolution: Interfacing Engineered Thermosensitive Magnetomicelles with a Living System,
E.A. Vitol, E.A. Rozhkova, V. Rose, B.D. Stripe, N.R. Young, E.E.W. Cohen, L. Leoni, and V. Novosad, Adv. Mater. Interf. 1, 1400182 (2014).

Unambiguous separation of the inverse spin Hall and anomalous Nernst Effects within a ferromagnetic metal using the spin Seebeck effect, S.M. Wu, J. Hoffman, J.E. Pearson, A. Bhattacharya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 092409 (2014) DOI: 10.1063/1.4895034.

Polar cation ordering: A route to introducing > 10% bond strain into layered oxide films, Brittany B. Nelson-Cheeseman, Hua Zhou, Prasanna V. Balachandran, Gilberto Fabbris, Jason Hoffman, Daniel Haskel, James M. Rondinelli, Anand Bhattacharya, Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 (2014) DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401077.

Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene 
S. Das, W. Zhang, M. Demarteau, A. Hoffmann, M. Dubey, and A. Roelofs, Nano Lett. 14, 5733 (2014). 


Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity, 
M. Iavarone, S.A. Moore, J. Fedor, S.T. Ciocys, G. Karapetrov, J.E. Pearson, V. Novosad, and S.D. Bader, Nature Comm. 5, 4766 (2014). 


Nanometer-Thick Yttrium Iron Garnet Films With Extremely Low Damping 
H. Chang, P. Li, W. Zhang, T. Liu, A. Hoffmann, L. Deng, and M. Wu, IEEE Magn. Lett. 5, 6700104 (2014).

Dynamic layer rearrangement during growth of layered oxide films by molecular beam epitaxy, June Hyuk Lee, Guangfu Luo, I-Cheng Tung, Seo Chang, Zhenlin Luo, Milind Malshe, Milind Gadre, Anand Bhattacharya, Serge Nakhmanson, Jeffrey Eastman, Hawoong Hong, Julius Jellinek, Dane Morgan, Dillon Fong, and John Freeland, Nature Mater. (2014). DOI: 10.1038/nmat4039.

Magnetic Oxide Heterostructures, A. Bhattacharya and S.J. May, Ann. Rev. of Mater. Res. 44: 5.15.26 (2014).

Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons, P.V. Balachandran, A. Cammarata, B.B. Nelson-Cheeseman, A. Bhattacharya and J.M. Rondinelli, APL Mater. 2, 076110 (2014).

Microwave absorption properties of permalloy nanodots in the vortex and quasi-uniform magnetization states,
K.Y. Guslienko, G.N. Kakazei, Y.V. Kobljanskyi, G.A. Melkov, V. Novosad, and A.N. Slavin, New J. Phys. 16, 063044 (2014). 


Vortex-antivortex coexistence in Nb-based superconductor/ferromagnet heterostructures, F. Bobba, C. Di Giorgio, A. Scarfato, M. Longobardi, M. Iavarone, S.A. Moore, G. Karapetrov, V. Novosad, V. Yefremenko, and A.M. Cuvolo,
 Phys. Rev. B 89, 214502 (2014).

Realization of a spin-wave multiplexer, 
K. Vogt, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, T. Sebastian, S.D. Bader, B. Hillebrands, A. Hoffmann, and H. Schultheiss, 
Nature Commun. 5, 3727 (2014). 


Preface: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Denver, Colorado, USA, November 2013,
A. Hoffmann,
 J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17A101 (2014). 


Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 58th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Denver, Colorado, USA, November 2013,
A. Hoffmann, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 172501 (2014). 


Oxygen-Vacancy-Induced Polar Behavior in (LaFeO3)2/(SrFeO3) Superlattices, Rohan Mishra, Young-Min Kim, Juan Salafranca, Seong Keun Kim, Seo Hyoung Chang, Anand Bhattacharya, Dillon D. Fong, Stephen J. Pennycook, Sokrates T. Pantelides, and Albina Y. Borisevich, Nano Lett. 14 , 2694 (2014).

Influence of Domain Width on Vortex Nucleation in Superconductor/Ferromagnet Hybrid Structures, 
M. Iavarone, S.A. Moore, J. Fedor, V. Novosad, J.A. Pearson, and G. Karapetrov, J. Supercond. Novel Magn., 28, 1107 (2014). 


The Effect of Ligands on FePt-Fe3O4 Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles, D.H. Kim, Y. Tamada, T. Ono, S.D. Bader, E.A. Rozhkova, and V. Novosad, J. Nanosci. Nanotechn. 14, 2648 (2014).

Dynamics of coupled vortices in perpendicular field, 
S. Jain, V. Novosad, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, and S.D. Bader, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 082409 (2014).

Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons, P.V. Balachandran, A. Cammarata, B.B. Nelson-Cheeseman, A. Bhattacharya and J.M. Rondinelli, APL Mater. 2, 076110 (2014).

Correlating interfacial octahedral rotations with magnetism in (LaMnO3) N/(SrTiO3)N superlattices. Xiaofang Zhai, Long Cheng, Yang Liu, Christian M. Schlepütz, Shuai Dong, Hui Li, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Shengqi Chu, Lirong Zheng, Zhang Jing, Aidi Zhao, Hawoong Hong, Anand Bhattacharya, James N. Eckstein, Changgan Zeng, Nature Commun. 5, 4283 (2014).

Ferromagnetic resonance of sputtered yttrium iron garnet nanometer films T. Liu, H. Chang, V. Vlaminck, Y. Sun, M. Kabatek, A. Hoffmann, L. Deng, and M. Wu J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17A501 (2014).

Dynamic decay of a single vortex into vortex-antivortex pairs,
S. Lendinez, S. Jain, V. Novosad, F.Y. Fradin, J.E. Pearson, J. Tejada, S.D. Bader J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17D121 (2014).