Skip to main content

Linda L. Gaines

Transportation System Analyst


Linda Gaines is an Environmental Scientist/Systems Analyst in Argonne National Laboratory’s Energy Systems division, where she examines energy use and the flow of materials and processes in the energy production cycle. She has written a series of handbooks assessing energy and material flows in petroleum refining, organic chemicals, and copper industries that provided background for studies of technical and institutional issues involved in recycling energy-intensive materials. Dr. Gaines has also examined the costs and impacts on energy use and the environment of production and recycling of advanced-design automobiles, trucks, trains, and batteries. More recently, her research has focused on analyzing process options for recycling of lithium-ion batteries. 

Dr. Gaines received a B.A. in Chemistry and Physics from Radcliffe College; M.A. and M.Phil. in Physics from Columbia University; and Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia University.

Selected Publications
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes: Research towards a Sustainable Course,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2018, in press).
  • The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling’s role in its reduction,” Energy & Environmental Science 8, 158-168 (2015).
  • The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: charting a sustainable course,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies 1-2, 2-7 (2014).
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Environmental Impacts, L.L. Gaines and J.B. Dunn, Chapter 21 of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications b(2014).
  • Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries with organic acids as leaching reagents and environmental assessment,” Journal of Power Sources 233, 180-189 (2013).
  • To Recycle or Not To Recycle: That Is the Question -- Insights from Life-Cycle Analysis,” MRS Bulletin 37, 333-338 (2012).
Synergistic Activities
  • SAE Battery Recycling Committee
  • NAATBatt Recycling Committee
  • Scientific Advisory Board of Responsible Battery Coalition
  • Editor, Sustainable Materials and Technologies