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Linda L. Gaines

Transportation System Analyst


Linda Gaines is an Environmental Scientist/Systems Analyst in Argonne National Laboratory’s Energy Systems and Infrastructure Analysis division, where she examines energy use and the flow of materials and processes in the energy production cycle. She has written a series of handbooks assessing energy and material flows in petroleum refining, organic chemicals, and copper industries that provided background for studies of technical and institutional issues involved in recycling energy-intensive materials. Dr. Gaines has also examined the costs and impacts on energy use and the environment of production and recycling of advanced-design automobiles, trucks, trains, and batteries. More recently, her research has focused on analyzing process options for recycling of lithium-ion batteries. 

Dr. Gaines received a B.A. in Chemistry and Physics from Radcliffe College; M.A. and M.Phil. in Physics from Columbia University; and Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia University.

Selected Publications
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes: Research towards a Sustainable Course,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2018, in press).
  • The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling’s role in its reduction,” Energy & Environmental Science 8, 158-168 (2015).
  • The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: charting a sustainable course,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies 1-2, 2-7 (2014).
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Environmental Impacts, L.L. Gaines and J.B. Dunn, Chapter 21 of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications b(2014).
  • Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries with organic acids as leaching reagents and environmental assessment,” Journal of Power Sources 233, 180-189 (2013).
  • To Recycle or Not To Recycle: That Is the Question -- Insights from Life-Cycle Analysis,” MRS Bulletin 37, 333-338 (2012).
Synergistic Activities
  • SAE Battery Recycling Committee
  • NAATBatt Recycling Committee
  • Scientific Advisory Board of Responsible Battery Coalition
  • Editor, Sustainable Materials and Technologies